We extend the estimation of the components of partisan biasd, undue advantage conferred to some party in the conversion of votes into legislative seats to single-member district systems in the presence of multiple parties. Extant methods to estimate the contributions to partisan bias from malapportionment, boundary delimitations, and turnout are limited to two-party competition. In order to assess the spatial dimension of multi-party elections, we propose an empirical procedure combining three existing approaches: a separation method (Grofman et al. 1997), a multi-party estimation method (King 1990), and Monte Carlo simulations of national elections (Linzer, 2012). We apply the proposed method to the study of recent national lower chamber elections in Mexico. Analysis uncovers systematic turnout-based bias in favor of the former hegemonic ruling party that has been offset by district geography substantively helping one or both other major parties.
We analyze sixty-six Ohio congressional plans produced during the post-2010 census redistricting by the legislature and the public. The public drew many plans submitted for judging in a competition hosted by reform advocates, who awarded a prize to the plan that scored best on a formula composed of four permissive components: compactness, respect for local political boundaries, partisan fairness, and competition. We evaluate how the legislature’s adopted plan compares to these plans on the advocates’ criteria and our alternative set of criteria, which reveals the degree by which the legislature placed partisanship over these other criteria. Our evaluation reveals minimal trade-offs among the components of the overall competition’s scoring criteria, but we caution that the scoring formula may be sensitive to implementation choices among its components. Compared to the legislature’s plan, the reform community can get more of the four criteria they value; importantly, without sacrificing the state’s only African-American opportunity congressional district.
Many libraries, archives, and museums are now regularly acquiring, processing, and analyzing born-digital materials. Materials exist on a variety of source media, including flash drives, hard drives, floppy disks, and optical media. Extracting disk images (i.e., sector-by-sector copies of digital media) is an increasingly common practice. It can be essential to ensuring provenance, original order, and chain of custody. Disk images allow users to explore and interact with the original data without risk of permanent alteration. These replicas help institutions to safeguard against modifications to underlying data that can occur when a file system contained on a storage medium is mounted, or a bootable medium is powered up. Retention of disk images can substantially reduce preservation risks. Digital storage media become progressively difficult (or impossible) to read over time, due to “bit rot,” obsolescence of media, and reduced availability of devices to read them. Simply copying the allocated files off a disk and discarding the storage carrier, however, can be problematic. The ability to access and render the content of files can depend upon the presence of other data that resided on the disk. These dependencies are often not obvious upon first inspection and may only be discovered after the original medium is no longer readable or available. Disk images also enable a wide range of potential access approaches, including dynamic browsing of disk images (Misra S, Lee CA, Woods K (2014) A Web Service for File-Level Access to Disk Images. Code4Lib Journal, 25 ) and emulation of earlier computing platforms. Disk images often contain residual data, which may consist of previously hidden or deleted files (Redwine G, et al. in Born digital: guidance for donors, dealers, and archival repositories. Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, 2013 ). Residual data can be valuable for scholars interested in learning about the context of creation. Traces of activities undertaken in the original environment—for example, identifying removable media connected to a host machine or finding contents of browser caches—can provide additional sources of information for researchers and facilitate the preservation of materials (Woods K, et al. in Proceedings of the 11th annual international ACM/IEEE joint conference on digital libraries, pp. 57–66, 2011 ). Digital forensic tools can be used to create disk images in a wide range of formats. These include raw files (such as those produced by the Unix tool dd). Quantifying successes and failures for many tools can require judgment calls by qualified digital curation professionals. Verifying a checksum for a file is a simple case; the checksums either match or are different. In the events described in the previous sections, however, the conditions for success are fuzzier. For example, fiwalk will often “successfully” complete whether or not it is able to extract a meaningful record of the contents of file system(s) on a disk image. Likewise, bulk_extractor will simply report items of interest it has discovered. Knowing whether this output is useful (and whether it has changed between separate executions of a given tool) depends on comparison of the output between the two runs, information not currently recorded in the PREMIS document. In the BitCurator implementation, events are often recorded as having completed, rather than as having succeeded, to avoid ambiguity. Future iterations of the implementation may include more nuanced descriptions of event outcomes.
Software is a critical part of modern research and yet there is little support across the scholarly ecosystem for its acknowledgement and citation. Inspired by the activities of the FORCE11 working group focused on data citation, this document summarizes the recommendations of the FORCE11 Software Citation Working Group and its activities between June 2015 and April 2016. Based on a review of existing community practices, the goal of the working group was to produce a consolidated set of citation principles that may encourage broad adoption of a consistent policy for software citation across disciplines and venues. Our work is presented here as a set of software citation principles, a discussion of the motivations for developing the principles, reviews of existing community practice, and a discussion of the requirements these principles would place upon different stakeholders. Working examples and possible technical solutions for how these principles can be implemented will be discussed in a separate paper.
This comment is informed by research with collaborators through the Privacy Tools for Sharing Research Data project at Harvard University. In this broad, multidisciplinary 1 project, we are exploring the privacy issues that arise when collecting, analyzing, and disseminating research datasets containing personal information. Our efforts are focused on translating the theoretical promise of new measures for privacy protection and data utility into practical tools and approaches. In particular, our work aims to help realize the tremendous potential from social science research data by making it easier for researchers to share their data using privacy protective tools.
In general, the growth of big data sources have changed the threat landscape of privacy and statistics in at least three major ways. First, when surveys were initially founded as the principal source of statistical information, whether one participated in a survey was largely unknown. Now, as government record systems and corporate big data sources are increasingly used that include all or a large portion of a given universe, that privacy protection is eroded. Second, in the past, little outside information was generally available to match with published summaries. Now the ubiquity of auxiliary information enables many more inferences from summary data. Third, in the past, typical privacy attacks relied on linking outside data through well-known public characteristics -- PII or BII. Now, datasets can be linked through behavioral fingerprints.
The current state of the practice in privacy lags well behind the state of the art in this area. Most commercial organizations, and most NSOs in other countries continue to rely (at most) on traditional aggregation and suppression methods to protect privacy – with no formal analysis of privacy loss or of the utility of the information gathered. The U.S. Census Bureau, because of its size, institutional capacity, and strong reputation for privacy protection could establish leadership in modernizing privacy practices.
Vast quantities of data about individuals are increasingly being created by services such as mobile apps and online social networks and through methods such as DNA sequencing. These data are quite rich, containing a large number of fine-grained data points related to human biology, characteristics, behaviors, and relationships over time.
We recognize the exciting research opportunities enabled by new data sources and technologies for collecting, analyzing, and sharing data about individuals. With the ability to collect and analyze massive quantities of data related to human characteristics, behaviors, and interactions, researchers are increasingly able to explore phenomena in finer detail and with greater confidence. At the same time, a 2 major challenge for realizing the full potential of these recent advances will be protecting the privacy of human subjects. Approaches to privacy protection in common use in both research and industry contexts often provide limited realworld privacy protection. We believe institutional review boards (IRBs) and investigators require new guidance to inform their selection and implementation of appropriate measures for privacy protection in human subjects research. Therefore, we share many of the same concerns and rec
The claims and protests caused by the deterioration of the political elite during the last decade show, among other things, the urgency to strengthen the linkage between citizens and their representatives. From our perspective, the use of information technology, as well as the generation and use of open data, offers an opportunity to improve the levels of governance and democratic consolidation in Mexico. In this area, the delimitation of the electoral boundaries is key to improve political representation. Given the technicalities surrounding boundary delimitation processes –geographical, statistical, informatics, among the most recognizable– it is easy to fall into the temptation of relegating redistricting to specialists and lose sight of its importance for democracy. In this paper we discuss how new technologies can be useful to incorporate the design, analysis, and study of electoral cartography to the international standards of open government. Additionally, we describe how an open source web-based platform, available to any citizen, has great potential for increasing the levels of participation, transparency, communication, and accountability surrounding redistricting process in the country.
Broad new sources of information have the potential to bring increased granularity, detail and timeliness to the next generation of official statistics -- while reducing survey burden.The next generation of official statistics will utilize broad sources of information, potentially linked together, to provide increasing granularity, detail, and timeliness, while reducing cost and burden.
Utilizing big data requires creating new relationships with businesses. Many of the primary sources of big data are businesses that use data intensively to guide decisions: Big data sources are also critical stakeholders. In order to obtain access to data from businesses that create and use it, it is critical to both provide a value proposition to the business and to develop a trust relationship.
Rapid fabrication technologies, or “3-D Printing,” to use the less accurate but more familiar term, have undergone rapid evolution and are now used for medical implants, prosthetics, teaching aids, information visualization, research on rare/fragile objects, architecture, art, and advanced manufacturing. These technologies are rapidly lowering a number of different barriers faced by researchers and others, barriers that had previously made it prohibitively difficult for most individuals, researchers, and organizations to manufacture objects without significant investment of time and money in training and equipment. Because of these advances, the complexity and range of objects that may now be manufactured has increased precipitously, including easily customized items or precisely replicated physical objects, while the process by which these may be manufactured has flattened, allowing on-site or local manufacture and reducing lead time (in some cases permitting even just-in-time manufacturing processes).
Our analysis provides information for senior library staff to support decisions related to engagement with 3-D printing, rapid fabrication and digitization technologies, and makerspaces, in general, and in particular to inform decisions regarding the types of service offerings libraries can provide, resources needed, and evaluation of the service.
This article describes the novel open source tools for open data publication in open access journal workflows. This comprises a plugin for Open Journal Systems that supports a data submission, citation, review, and publication workflow; and an extension to the Dataverse system that provides a standard deposit API. We describe the function and design of these tools, provide examples of their use, and summarize their initial reception. We conclude by discussing future plans and potential impact.
Abstract: The increasing volume and complexity of research, scholarly publication and research information puts an added strain on traditional methods of scholarly communication and evaluation. Information goods and networks are not standard market goods – and so we should not rely on markets alone to develop new forms of scholarly publishing. The affordances of digital information and networks create many opportunities to unbundle the functions of scholarly communication – the central challenge is to create a range of new forms of publication that effectively promote both market and collaborative ecosystems.
The various complaints and protests of various kinds in the last decade in The generation and use of information for this task is a priority area for governance and strengthening our young democracy. In this area, the delimitation of the electoral map is a key to achieving better political representation.
As the number of authors on scientific publications increases,
ordered lists of author names are proving inadequate for the
purposes of attribution and credit.
• A multi-stakeholder group has produced a contributor role taxonomy
for use in scientific publications.
• Identifying specific contributions to published research will lead
to appropriate credit, fewer author disputes, and fewer disincentives
to collaboration and the sharing of data and code
Data citation is rapidly emerging as a key practice supporting data access, sharing and reuse, as well as sound and reproducible scholarship. Consensus data citation principles, articulated through the Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles , represent an advance in the state of the practice and a new consensus on citation
Altman M, McDonald MP. Redistricting and Polarization. In: Thurber J, Yoshinaka A American Gridlock: The Sources, Character, and Impact of Political Polarization. Cambridge University Press ; 2015.Abstract
We review how the ideological polarization of members of the House of Representatives (elite polarization) is affected by: o sorting of parties’ incumbents into more ideologically compatible districts o replacement of incumbents by more ideologically extreme successors o the drawing of more ideologically extreme districts ● We show there are fewer competitive congressional districts – having a near balance of Democrats and Republicans – following redistricting ● We show more competitive districts can be drawn without sacrificing other values, such as compactness or minority representation ● We discuss the prospects for redistricting reform
Invited written testimony queries on how to improve public input into the Boundary Commission for England. This testimony summarizes both our research into public participation in electoral delimitations, and our professional experience in conducting boundary delimitation.