Publications by Year: 2015

2015
Altman M, Capps C, Prevost R. Using New Forms of Information for Official Economic Statistics -- Examining the Commodity Flow Survey:Executive Summary from the 1rst Workshop in the Census-Mit Big Data Workshop Series. SSN: Social Science Research Network [Internet]. 2015. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Broad new sources of information have the potential to bring increased granularity, detail and timeliness to the next generation of official statistics -- while reducing survey burden.The next generation of official statistics will utilize broad sources of information, potentially linked together, to provide increasing granularity, detail, and timeliness, while reducing cost and burden.

 

Utilizing big data requires creating new relationships with businesses. Many of the primary sources of big data are businesses that use data intensively to guide decisions: Big data sources are also critical stakeholders. In order to obtain access to data from businesses that create and use it, it is critical to both provide a value proposition to the business and to develop a trust relationship.

ssrn-id2670209.pdf
Altman M, Bernhardt M, Horowitz L, Lu W, Shapiro R. Rapid Fabrication/Makerspace Services (SPEC KIT 348). Washington, D.C. Association of Research Libraries; 2015. Publisher's VersionAbstract

 Rapid fabrication technologies, or “3-D Printing,” to use the less accurate but more familiar term, have undergone rapid evolution and are now used for medical implants, prosthetics, teaching aids, information visualization, research on rare/fragile objects, architecture, art, and advanced manufacturing. These technologies are rapidly lowering a number of different barriers faced by researchers and others, barriers that had previously made it prohibitively difficult for most individuals, researchers, and organizations to manufacture objects without significant investment of  time and money in training and equipment. Because of these advances, the complexity and range of objects that may now be manufactured has increased precipitously, including easily customized items or precisely replicated physical objects, while the process by which these may be manufactured has flattened,  allowing on-site or local manufacture and reducing lead time (in some cases permitting even just-in-time manufacturing processes).

Our analysis provides  information for senior library staff to support decisions related to engagement with 3-D printing, rapid fabrication and digitization technologies, and makerspaces, in general, and in particular to inform decisions regarding the types of service offerings libraries can provide, resources needed, and evaluation of the service.

Executive Summary
Altman M, Castro E, Crosas M, Durbin P, Garnett A, Whitney J. Open Journal Systems and Dataverse Integration-- Helping Journals to Upgrade Data Publication for Reusable Research. Code4Lib Journal. 2015;20.Abstract

This article describes the novel open source tools for open data publication in open access journal workflows. This comprises a plugin for Open Journal Systems that supports a data submission, citation, review, and publication workflow; and an extension to the Dataverse system that provides a standard deposit API. We describe the function and design of these tools, provide examples of their use, and summarize their initial reception. We conclude by discussing future plans and potential impact.

 

codeforlib.pdf
Altman M, Avery M. Information wants someone else to pay for it: laws of information economics and scholarly publishing. Information Services and Use [Internet]. 2015;35 (1-2) :57-70. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Abstract: The increasing volume and complexity of research, scholarly publication and research information puts an added strain on traditional methods of scholarly communication and evaluation. Information goods and networks are not standard market goods – and so we should not rely on markets alone to develop  new forms of scholarly publishing. The affordances of digital information and networks create many opportunities to unbundle the functions of scholarly communication – the central challenge is to create a range of new forms of publication that effectively promote both market and collaborative ecosystems.

 

isuv4.pdf
Trelles A, Altman M, Magar E, McDonald MP. Open Data, political representation and redistricting in Mexico. datos.gob.mx - Mexico's Official Open Government Site [Internet]. 2015. Publisher's VersionAbstract

The various complaints and protests of various kinds in the last decade in The generation and use of information for this task is a priority area for governance and strengthening our young democracy. In this area, the delimitation of the electoral map is a key to achieving better political representation. 

datos_abiertos_representacion_politica_y_redistritacion_en_mexico.pdf
Brand A, Allen L, Altman M, Hlava M, Scott J. Beyond authorship: attribution, contribution, collaboration, and credit. Learned Publishing [Internet]. 2015;28 (2) :151-155. Publisher's VersionAbstract
As the number of authors on scientific publications increases, ordered lists of author names are proving inadequate for the purposes of attribution and credit. • A multi-stakeholder group has produced a contributor role taxonomy for use in scientific publications. • Identifying specific contributions to published research will lead to appropriate credit, fewer author disputes, and fewer disincentives to collaboration and the sharing of data and code
lpub28-2_151-155.pdf
Altman M, Borgman C, Crosas M, Martone M.  An Introduction to the Joint Principles for Data Citation. Bulletin of the Association for Information Science and Technology [Internet]. 2015;41 (3) :43-44. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Data citation is rapidly emerging as a key practice supporting data access, sharing and reuse, as well as sound and reproducible scholarship. Consensus data citation principles, articulated through the Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles [3], represent an advance in the state of the practice and a new consensus on citation
febmar15_rdap_altman_etal.pdf
Altman M, McDonald MP. Redistricting and Polarization. In: Thurber J, Yoshinaka A American Gridlock: The Sources, Character, and Impact of Political Polarization. Cambridge University Press ; 2015.Abstract

We review how the ideological polarization of members of the House of Representatives (elite polarization) is affected by: o sorting of parties’ incumbents into more ideologically compatible districts o replacement of incumbents by more ideologically extreme successors o the drawing of more ideologically extreme districts ● We show there are fewer competitive congressional districts – having a near balance of Democrats and Republicans – following redistricting ● We show more competitive districts can be drawn without sacrificing other values, such as compactness or minority representation ● We discuss the prospects for redistricting reform

altmanandmcdonaldredistrictingpolarization_revised_1.pdf
Altman M, McDonald MP. Written Evidence in Response to "What next on the redrawing of Parliamentary boundaries?". [Internet]. 2015. All Written Testimony - Parliament Select CommitteeAbstract

Invited written testimony queries on how to improve public input into the Boundary Commission for England. This testimony summarizes both our research into public participation in electoral delimitations, and our professional experience in conducting boundary delimitation.

17316.pdf
Wood A, O'Brien D, Altman M, Karr A, Gasser U, Bar-Sinai M, Nissim K, Ullman J, Vadhan S, Wojcik MJ. Integrating Approaches to Privacy Across the Research Lifecycle: Long-Term Longitudinal Studies . Social Science Research Network [Internet]. 2015. Publisher's VersionAbstract

On September 24-25, 2013, the Privacy Tools for Sharing Research Data project at Harvard University held a workshop titled "Integrating Approaches to Privacy across the Research Data Lifecycle." Over forty leading experts in computer science, statistics, law, policy, and social science research convened to discuss the state of the art in data privacy research. The resulting conversations centered on the emerging tools and approaches from the participants’ various disciplines and how they should be integrated in the context of real-world use cases that involve the management of confidential research data. This workshop report, the first in a series, provides an overview of the long-term longitudinal study use case. Long-term longitudinal studies collect, at multiple points over a long period of time, highly-specific and often sensitive data describing the health, socioeconomic, or behavioral characteristics of human subjects. The value of such studies lies in part in their ability to link a set of behaviors and changes to each individual, but these factors tend to make the combination of observable characteristics associated with each subject unique and potentially identifiable. Using the research information lifecycle as a framework, this report discusses the defining features of long-term longitudinal studies and the associated challenges for researchers tasked with collecting and analyzing such data while protecting the privacy of human subjects. It also describes the disclosure risks and common legal and technical approaches currently used to manage confidentiality in longitudinal data. Finally, it identifies urgent problems and areas for future research to advance the integration of various methods for preserving confidentiality in research data.

Altman M, McDonald M. Paradoxes Of Political Reform: Congressional Redistricting In Florida. In: Jigsaw Puzzle Politics in the Sunshine State. University Press of Florida ; 2015. Publisher's VersionAbstract

The reforms to the redistricting process in Florida, catalyzed by advances in information technology, enabled a dramatic increase in public participation in the redistricting process. This reform process in Florida can be considered a partial success: The adopted plan implements one the the most efficient observable trade-offs among the reformer’s criteria, primarily along the lines of racial representation by creating an additional Black-majority district in the form of the current 5th Congressional District. This does not mean, however, that reform was entirely successful. The adopted plan is efficient, but is atypical of the plans submitted by the legislature and public. Based on the pattern of public submissions, and on contextual information, we suspect the adopted plan was drawn for partisan motivations. The public preference and good-government criteria might be better served by the selection of the other efficient plans – that were much more competitive, and less biased, at the cost of a reduction of the majority-minority seat.