The relatively new practice of making bibliographic references to data sets with formal citations begins to address long-standing problems limiting our collective ability to locate data and to reuse them effectively in advancing science. References made and citations received support a research infrastructure to provide the necessary recognition and reward of data work, in addition to providing attribution detail, facilitating future access, and fostering cross-collaboration and investigation. They are the links between the data and the published research results needed to maintain the integrity of the scientific method. Some research funders have begun to require that publicly funded research data be deposited with various data centers. As these practices become better established, the ability to detect, locate, obtain, and understand the data from prior research will be circumscribed by our ability to have a sufficient description of those data: a citation. Based on a review of emerging practices and analysis of existing literature on citation practices, we have identified the following set of “first principles” for data citation:
The 2014 National Agenda for Digital Stewardship highlights emerging technological trends, identifies gaps in digital stewardship capacity, and provides funders and decision‐makers with insight into the work needed to ensure that today's valuable digital content remains accessible, useful and comprehensible in the future, supporting a thriving economy, a robust democracy, and a rich cultural heritage. It is meant to inform, rather than replace, individual organizational efforts, planning, goals, or opinions. It offers inspiration and guidance and suggests potential directions and areas of inquiry for research and future work in digital stewardship.
The structure and design of digital storage systems is a cornerstone of digital preservation. To better understand ongoing storage practices of organizations committed to digital preservation, the National Digital Stewardship Alliance conducted a survey of member organizations. This article reports on the findings of the survey. The results of the survey provide a frame of reference for organizations to compare their storage system approaches with NDSA member organizations.
Over the past fifty years, the battle lines in Virginia redistricting have shifted from within-party fighting among Democrats primarily over malapportionment favoring rural interests over urban interests to battles over voting rights. In this article, we provide a detailed history of redistricting in Virginia, and a quantitative analysis of current adopted and proposed redistricting plans. Surprisingly, although the outcome remained partisan, the current round of redistricting included an unprecedented level of public engagement, catalyzed by information technology. The Virginia commission and the participation of students in the current round of Virginia’s redistricting demonstrates that redistricting does not have to be left up to the ‘professionals.’ Further, our analysis suggests that state-level reform in the form of an independent commission that strictly follows a set of administrative criteria would likely modestly benefit Republicans.