Rapid fabrication technologies, or “3-D Printing,” to use the less accurate but more familiar term, have undergone rapid evolution and are now used for medical implants, prosthetics, teaching aids, information visualization, research on rare/fragile objects, architecture, art, and advanced manufacturing. These technologies are rapidly lowering a number of different barriers faced by researchers and others, barriers that had previously made it prohibitively difficult for most individuals, researchers, and organizations to manufacture objects without significant investment of time and money in training and equipment. Because of these advances, the complexity and range of objects that may now be manufactured has increased precipitously, including easily customized items or precisely replicated physical objects, while the process by which these may be manufactured has flattened, allowing on-site or local manufacture and reducing lead time (in some cases permitting even just-in-time manufacturing processes).
Our analysis provides information for senior library staff to support decisions related to engagement with 3-D printing, rapid fabrication and digitization technologies, and makerspaces, in general, and in particular to inform decisions regarding the types of service offerings libraries can provide, resources needed, and evaluation of the service.
This article describes the novel open source tools for open data publication in open access journal workflows. This comprises a plugin for Open Journal Systems that supports a data submission, citation, review, and publication workflow; and an extension to the Dataverse system that provides a standard deposit API. We describe the function and design of these tools, provide examples of their use, and summarize their initial reception. We conclude by discussing future plans and potential impact.
. Information Services and Use [Internet]. 2015;35(1-2):57-70.
Abstract: The increasing volume and complexity of research, scholarly publication and research information puts an added strain on traditional methods of scholarly communication and evaluation. Information goods and networks are not standard market goods – and so we should not rely on markets alone to develop new forms of scholarly publishing. The affordances of digital information and networks create many opportunities to unbundle the functions of scholarly communication – the central challenge is to create a range of new forms of publication that effectively promote both market and collaborative ecosystems.
The various complaints and protests of various kinds in the last decade in The generation and use of information for this task is a priority area for governance and strengthening our young democracy. In this area, the delimitation of the electoral map is a key to achieving better political representation.
As the number of authors on scientific publications increases,
ordered lists of author names are proving inadequate for the
purposes of attribution and credit.
• A multi-stakeholder group has produced a contributor role taxonomy
for use in scientific publications.
• Identifying specific contributions to published research will lead
to appropriate credit, fewer author disputes, and fewer disincentives
to collaboration and the sharing of data and code
Data citation is rapidly emerging as a key practice supporting data access, sharing and reuse, as well as sound and reproducible scholarship. Consensus data citation principles, articulated through the Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles , represent an advance in the state of the practice and a new consensus on citation
. In Thurber J, Yoshinaka A American Gridlock: The Sources, Character, and Impact of Political Polarization Cambridge University Press; 2015.Abstract
We review how the ideological polarization of members of the House of Representatives (elite polarization) is affected by: o sorting of parties’ incumbents into more ideologically compatible districts o replacement of incumbents by more ideologically extreme successors o the drawing of more ideologically extreme districts ● We show there are fewer competitive congressional districts – having a near balance of Democrats and Republicans – following redistricting ● We show more competitive districts can be drawn without sacrificing other values, such as compactness or minority representation ● We discuss the prospects for redistricting reform
Invited written testimony queries on how to improve public input into the Boundary Commission for England. This testimony summarizes both our research into public participation in electoral delimitations, and our professional experience in conducting boundary delimitation.
The reforms to the redistricting process in Florida, catalyzed by advances in information technology, enabled a dramatic increase in public participation in the redistricting process. This reform process in Florida can be considered a partial success: The adopted plan implements one the the most efficient observable trade-offs among the reformer’s criteria, primarily along the lines of racial representation by creating an additional Black-majority district in the form of the current 5th Congressional District. This does not mean, however, that reform was entirely successful. The adopted plan is efficient, but is atypical of the plans submitted by the legislature and public. Based on the pattern of public submissions, and on contextual information, we suspect the adopted plan was drawn for partisan motivations. The public preference and good-government criteria might be better served by the selection of the other efficient plans – that were much more competitive, and less biased, at the cost of a reduction of the majority-minority seat.
The NDSA National Agenda for Digital Stewardship integrates the perspective of dozens of experts and hundreds of institutions, convened through the Library of Congress, to provide funders and executive decision‐makers insight into emerging technological trends, gaps in digital stewardship capacity, and key areas for funding, research and development to ensure that today's valuable digital content remains accessible and comprehensible in the future, supporting a thriving economy, a robust democracy, and a rich cultural heritage.
This new edition of the Agenda builds on earlier work, updating the 2014 report, and highlighting new areas of focus, specifically the selection and preservation of content at-scale. It also more clearly articulates the need for an evidence base for efficient and reliable digital preservation practice. Recent gains and observations on the technical infrastructure required for large-scale digital stewardship and the supporting policies and organizational structures required are also outlined. The report synthesizes the latest issues for funders, researcher and organizational leaders and provides actionable recommendations for practitioners.
Our work leads us to conclude that no one can have complete information and no single group can, on its own, create fair electoral maps. Legislative gerrymandering is not the answer, but as Americans turn toward independent commissions, why not deploy all technologies available to facilitate the widest possible participation in districting choices critical to American democracy?
Sound, reproducible scholarship rests upon a foundation of robust, accessible data. For this to be so in practice as well as theory, data must be accorded due importance in the practice of scholarship and in the enduring scholarly record. In other words, data should be considered legitimate, citable products of research. Data citation, like the citation of other evidence and sources, is good research practice and is part of the scholarly ecosystem supporting data reuse.
In support of this assertion, and to encourage good practice, we offer a set of guiding principles for data within scholarly literature, another dataset, or any other research object.
Data citation is rapidly emerging as a key practice in support of data access, sharing, reuse, and of sound and reproducible scholarship. In this article we review the evolution of data citation standards and practices – to which Sue Dodd was an early contributor – and the core principles of data citation that have emerged through a collaborative synthesis. We then discuss an example of the current state of the practice, and identify the remaining implementation challenges.
Recent technological advances have enabled greater public participation and transparency in the United States redistricting process. We review these advances, with particular attention to activities involving open-source redistricting software.
The relatively new practice of making bibliographic references to data sets with formal citations begins to address long-standing problems limiting our collective ability to locate data and to reuse them effectively in advancing science. References made and citations received support a research infrastructure to provide the necessary recognition and reward of data work, in addition to providing attribution detail, facilitating future access, and fostering cross-collaboration and investigation. They are the links between the data and the published research results needed to maintain the integrity of the scientific method. Some research funders have begun to require that publicly funded research data be deposited with various data centers. As these practices become better established, the ability to detect, locate, obtain, and understand the data from prior research will be circumscribed by our ability to have a sufficient description of those data: a citation. Based on a review of emerging practices and analysis of existing literature on citation practices, we have identified the following set of “first principles” for data citation:
The 2014 National Agenda for Digital Stewardship highlights emerging technological trends, identifies gaps in digital stewardship capacity, and provides funders and decision‐makers with insight into the work needed to ensure that today's valuable digital content remains accessible, useful and comprehensible in the future, supporting a thriving economy, a robust democracy, and a rich cultural heritage. It is meant to inform, rather than replace, individual organizational efforts, planning, goals, or opinions. It offers inspiration and guidance and suggests potential directions and areas of inquiry for research and future work in digital stewardship.