Zachary Lizee who is a Graduate Research Intern in the program on information science, reflects on his investigations into information standards, and suggests how libraries can reach beyond local instruction on digital literacy to scaleable instruction on digital citizenship.
21st century Libraries, Standards Education and Socially Responsible Information Seeking Behavior
Standards and standards development frame, guide, and normalize almost all areas of our lives. Standards in IT govern interoperability between a variety of devices and platforms, standardized production of various machine parts allows uniform repair and reproduction, and standardization in fields like accounting, health care, or agriculture promotes best industry practices that emphasize safety and quality control. Informational standards like OpenDocument allows storage and processing of digital information to be accessible by most types of software ensuring that the data is recoverable in the future. Standards reflect the shared values, aspirations, and responsibilities we as a society project upon each other and our world.
Engineering and other innovative entrepreneurial fields need to have awareness aboutinformation standards and standards development to ensure that the results of research, design, and development in these areas have the most positive net outcome for our world at large, as illustrated by the analysis of healthcare information standards by HIMSS, a professional organization that works to affect informational standards in the healthcare IT field:
In healthcare, standards provide a common language and set of expectations that enable interoperability between systems and/or devices. Ideally, data exchange schema and standards should permit data to be shared between clinician, lab, hospital, pharmacy, and patient regardless of application or application vendor in order to improve healthcare delivery. 
As critical issues regarding information privacy quickly increase, standard development organizations and interested stakeholders take an active interest in creating and maintaining standards to regulate how personal data is stored, transferred, and used, which has both public interests and regulation by legal frameworks in mind.
Libraries have traditionally been centers of expertise/access of information collection, curation, dissemination, and instruction. And the standards around how digital information is produced, used, governed, and transmitted are rapidly evolving with new technologies. Libraries are participating in the processes of generating information standards to ensure that patrons can freely and safely access information. For instance, the National Information Standards Organization is developing informational standards to address patron privacy issues in library data management systems:
The NISO Privacy Principles, available at http://www.niso.org/topics/tl/patron_ privacy/, set forth a core set of guidelines by which libraries, systems providers and publishers can foster respect for patron privacy throughout their operations. The Preamble of the Principles notes that, ‘Certain personal data are often required in order for digital systems to deliver information, particularly subscribed content.’ Additionally, user activity data can provide useful insights on how to improve collections and services. However, the gathering, storage, and use of these data must respect the trust users place in libraries and their partners. There are ways to address these operational needs while also respecting the user’s rights and expectations of privacy.
This effort by NISO (which has librarians on the steering committee) illustrates how libraries engage in outreach and advocacy that is also in concert with the ALA’s Code of Ethics, which states that libraries have the duty to protect patron’s rights to privacy and confidentiality regarding information seeking behavior. Libraries and librarians have a long tradition of engaging in social responsibility for their patrons and community at large.
Although libraries are sometimes involved, most information standards are created by engineers working in corporate settings, or are considerably influenced by the development of products that become the model. Most students leave the university without understanding what standards are, how they are developed, and what potential social and political ramifications advancements in the engineering field can have on our world.
There is a trend in the academic and professional communities to foster greater understanding about what standards are, why they are important, and how they relate to influencing and shaping our world. Understanding the relevance of standards will be an asset that employers in the engineering fields will value and look for. Keeping informed about the most current standards can drive innovation and increase the market value of an engineer’s research and design efforts.
As informational hubs, libraries have a unique opportunity to participate in developing information literacy regarding standards and standards development. By infusing philosophies regarding socially responsible research and innovation, using standards instruction as a vehicle, librarians can emphasize the net positive effect of standards and ethics awareness for the individual student and the world at large.
The emergence of MOOCs creates an opportunity for librarians to reach a large audience to instruct patrons in information literacy in a variety of subjects. MOOCs can have a number of advantages when it comes to being able to inform and instruct a large number of people from a variety of geographic locations and across a range of subject areas.
For example, a subject specific librarian for an engineering department at a university could participate with engineering faculty in developing a MOOC that outlines the relative issues, facts, and procedures surrounding standards and standards development to aid the engineering faculty in instructing standards education. Together, librarians and subject experts could develop education on the roles that standards and socially responsible behavior factor into the field of engineering.
Students that learn early in their career why standards are an integral element in engineering and related fields have the potential to produce influential ideas, products, and programs that undoubtedly could have positive and constructive effects for society. Engineering endeavors to design products, methodologies, and other technologies that can have a positive impact on our world. Standards education in engineering fields can produce students who have a keen understanding of social awareness about human dignity, human justice, overall human welfare, and a sense of global responsibility.
Our world has a number of challenges: poverty, oppression, political and economic strife, environmental issues, and a host of many other dilemmas socially responsible engineers and innovators could address. The impact of educating engineers and innovators about standards and socially responsible behavior can affect future corporate responsibility, ethical and humanitarian behavior, altruistic technical research and development, which in turn yields a net positive result for the individual, society, and the world.
- Standards: Recipes for Reality, by Lawrence Busch.
- IEEE Standards University
- Northwestern University Strategic Standards Management
 OASIS, “OASIS Open Document Format for Office Applications TC,” <https://www.oasis-open.org/ committees/tc_home.php?wg_abbrev=office>
 HIMSS, “Why do we need standards?,” <http://www.himss.org/library/interoperability-standards/why-do-we-need-standards>
 Murphy, Craig N. and JoAnne Yates, The International Organization for Standardization (ISO): Global governance through voluntary consensus, London and New York: Routledge, 2009.
 See Opening Standards: The Global Politics of Interoperability, edited by Laura DeNardis, Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2011.
 “NISO Releases a Set of Principles to Address Privacy of User Data in Library, Content-Provider, and Software-Supplier Systems,” NISO, <http://www.niso.org/news/pr/view?item_key=678c44da628619119213955b867838b40b6a7d96>
 “IEEE Position Paper on the Role of Technical Standards in the Curriculum of Academic Programs in Engineering, Technology and Computing,” IEEE, <https://www.ieee.org/education_careers/education/eab/position_statements.html>
 “Education about standards,” ISO, <http://www.iso.org/iso/home/about/training-technical-assistance/standards-in-education.htm>
 “MOOC Design and Delivery: Opportunities and Challenges,” Current Issues in Emerging ELearning, V.3, Issue 1,(2016) <http://scholarworks.umb.edu/ciee/?utm_source=scholarworks.umb.edu%2Fciee%2Fvol2%2Fiss1%2F6&utm_medium=PDF&utm_campaign=PDFCoverPages>